This quantitative quasi-experimental research aimed to study the effects of background music on students' mathematics achievement, habits of minds, mathematics test anxiety, and disposition as bases for the development of a music-enhanced mathematics program. The respondents were the seventy two (72) third year high school students in three different programs, specifically; twenty four (24) students for each group from School of the Future, Schools for the Arts, and the Regular Class composed the three treatment groups: the urban music group, popular music group, and alternative music group. The comparability of the three groups was tested in terms of their pretest scores in mathematics achievements and habits of the mind. Conducted from January to March 2014, this research utilized a researcher-made test in mathematics achievements (multiple choice type and proving for habits of the mind), mathematics test anxiety rating scale. The statistical tools employed were frequency, percentage, mean, mean gain, and standard deviation for descriptive inferential statistics. All levels of significance were set at .05 alpha. The result showed that the pretest mean scores in mathematics achievement of all the three groups were "low". The mathematics achievement shifted to high in urban music group and alternative music group while popular music group while popular music group was marked "average" in the posttest. The pretest mean scores in habits of mind of the three groups were "not developed". In the post test, the popular music and alternative rock music music were both "strongly developed" while urban music was "satisfactory developed". The pretest mean scores in mathematics rest anxiety of the urban music group were both "moderate" while in the alternative rock music group was "high". On the other hand, the postest mean scores in mathematics test anxiety of the three group shifted to "moderate". The pretest mean scores in disposition to music of the urban music group was "liked". Furthermore, the posttest mean scores in disposition to music of the three groups were "liked".Moreover, all three groups had the same pretest and posttest results in music disposition, which has "positive". The study further showed that significant differences existed between the pretest and posttest scores in mathematics achievements and habits of mind and the students, however, no significant differences existed between the pretest and posttest scores in mathematics test anxiety. In addition, significant differences existed between the pretest and posttest scores in music disposition of students from the popular music group and alternative music group. However, no significant differences existed between the pretest ant posttest scores in music disposition of students from the urban music group. Finally, the music-enhanced mathematics program for Grade 9 was developed.