Performance level of university student councils in state universities in the Philippines:

Sub Title: a multidimensional approach.

Author: Trompeta, Grace P.

Accession Number: 413D

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Copyright Year: 1989

Abstract:

This study looked into the performance level of university student councils in state universities in the Philippines. It also determined whether there were differences in the perceptions of 48 campus student advisers and 212 student leaders of such performance in four dimensions -- student government organization (SG), democratizing experiences (DE), shared responsibilities (SR), and underlying principles of student council organization and operation (UP). The study also ascertained the association between the perceived performance level and such personal and university-related factors as gender, specialization of course, years of experience as campus student adviser or curriculum year, highest degree earned or highest leadership training attended, classification of the university, and its geographical location. The descriptive-analytical method and the sample survey technique were employed. The 260 respondents were selected through stratified random sampling from 38 colleges in 7 state universities, four of which were located in Luzon, one in the Visayas, and two in Mindanao during the school year 1988-1989. The data were obtained through a rating scale of summated values. Item validation was done by a panel of ten jurors. Each item was rated superior as indicated by weighted averages ranging from 47.5 to 49.3, the highest possible rating for which was 50. Test-retest reliability was .9626 (p<.001). The descriptive indices obtained from the Student Council Scale were the mean, the standard deviation, and the Spearman rank-order coefficient of correlation. Testing of the hypothesis used inferential statistics of analysis of variance with repeated measures, an a posteriori test using the Neuman-Keuls technique and the stepwise regression analysis. Significance level of .05 for two-tailed tests was set for all computed values. Results of the descriptive analysis. The overall mean for advisers and student leaders from the Student Council State (M=139.82, SD=15.40) indicated that the performance level of the university student councils was perceived to be above average. The difference between the perceptions of the advisers and the student was not significant. The advisers, however, tended to have a more positive perception of the performance of the student councils. When the respondents were grouped by university, five student councils were perceived to be above average in performance level and two were rated average. Correlational analysis between the perceptions of advisers and student leaders by university and performance dimensions showed significant, moderate to high positive correlations, suggesting a direct and congruent relationship between the respondents' perceptions of the performance level of their university student council. Correlational analysis between the performance dimensions revealed significant, moderate, positive correlations between the dimensions SG and UP (p<.01), SG and SR (p<.05). However, the correlations between each of these performance dimensions DE were not significant. The results indicated that the respondents were in agreement in their perceptions and that although DE had a direct relationship with the rest of the performance dimensions, the degree of relationship was low. Testing the hypothesis. Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that the obtained F-ratio (F=2.21) on the mean scores on Factor A-- the raters-- was less than the tabular value (df 1/12, F=4.75, p<.05), indicating that no significant relationship existed between the mean scores made on the scale by the advisers and the student leaders; hence the null hypothesis of no difference was accepted. The obtained ratio (F=3.79) on the mean scores of Factor B-- the performance dimensions-- was greater than the tabular value (df 3/36, F=2.86, p<.05), showing that significant differences existed between the mean scores of the performance dimensions; hence the null hypothesis was rejected. The obtained F-ratio for the interaction between Factors A and B was less than 1 (F=0.68), suggesting that no significant interaction effect existed between the raters and the performance dimensions. Only factor B-- the performance dimensions--contributed to the variance in the performance level of the university student councils. The Neuman-Keuls technique revealed that dimension DE-- democratizing experiences of the student council--differed significantly (p<.05) from the rest of the performance dimensions, concurring with the initial finding that the relationship between DE and each of the rest of the performance dimensions was significantly different from the relationship that existed between dimensions SG, SR, and UP. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that when taken jointly, the adviser variables accounted for 15 percent of the variation in the performance level of the university student councils, while student leader variables accounted for 64 percent of the variation in performance level. The results meant that the student variables had stronger association with the perceived performance level of the university student councils than the adviser variables. When the adviser variables were taken individually, 5 out of 6 contributed at least 1 percent each to the variation in performance level of university student councils. These variables were: classification of the university (5 percent), years experience as campus student adviser (3 percent), specialization (4 percent), geographical location (2 percent), and gender (1 percent). The results indicated that although the contribution of the adviser variables was relatively small, there existed some association between most of these variables and the performance level of the university student councils. When student leader variables were taken individually, 3 out of 6 contributed at least 1 percent to the variation in performance level of the university student councils. These variables were: geographical location of the university (55 percent), classification of the university (8 percent), and curriculum year (1 percent). The results revealed that geographical location had the strongest association with the performance level of university student councils. The F-ratio of the regression of geographical location (p<.001), classification of the university (p<.01), and curriculum year (p<.01) were statistically significant. Since these variables contributed at least 1 percent to the variation of performance level, then they emerged as predictor-variables of the perceptions of the student leaders regarding the performance level of their university student councils. Of the adviser variables, only classification of the university (p<.05) qualified as a predictor-variable. The adviser-variables of geographical location and gender, and the student leader variables of curriculum year and highest leadership training attended had inverse relationship with performance level. The results meant that the lower the code number of the attributes of these variables, the higher the composite scores made on the Student Council Scale. Since the attributes of these variables which were arbitrarily assigned code number 1 were: geographical location, Mindanao; gender, of the adviser, female; curriculum year, freshmen; and leadership training attended, local; then these attributes were associated with higher levels than the attributes of the independent variables with higher code numbers. In view of the results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis. the null hypothesis that no association existed between the perceived performance level of university student councils and certain personal and university-related variables was rejected. Conclusions. As a whole, the perceptions of campus student adsvisers and student leaders were generally in the same direction. Both groups were congruent in their perceptions that the performance level of the university student councils was above average. It can be reasonably infered that the need of certain universities to establish or to restore the operation of their student council was not perceived to be a need of students in state universities. It can be reasonably inferred from the results indicating significant differences between dimensions DE and the rest of the performance dimension that while the university student councils were perceived to be above average in student government organization and in democratic ideals that they uphold and were abounding in shared responsibilities, these student councils fell short in democratizing experiences. The university student councils in state universities were wanting in more opportunities for their university student councils to practice the democratic process by which they could achieve their professed democratic ideals and goals. Since the adviser variables and the student leader variables contributed to the variation in the performance level of the university student councils, then it can be reasonably inferred that certain personal and university-related factors have influenced the perceptions of campus student advisers and student leaders regarding the performance of their university student councils. ] From the inverse relationships between the performance level of the university student councils and some of the independent variables tested, it can be inferred that the following would tend to have more positive perceptions of the performance of the university student student councils: advisers from state universities in Mindanao over those from state universities in the Visayas and Luzon; female advisers over male advisers; student leaders in lower curriculum years over those in higher years; and student leaders who had attended lower levels of leadership training programs over those who had attended higher levels. It can be further inferred from the F-ratio of the regression of geographical location and classification of the university and curriculum year that the interaction of the physical aspects of the environment with the types of student leaders who attend a given state university are significant determinants of how the performance of the university student council could be perceived. Thus, since there is a yearly turn-over of students and changes in the attributes and geographical location, the performance level of the university student council would likewise oscillate from time to time.


Keywords: University Student Councils

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